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Sophia or Hajia Sophia or Hagia Sophia was the Christian Church of the Orient, built during the Byzantine Empire in 532 under the orders of Emperor Constantine I, and then rebuilt and restored in the 6th century by Jesención. Two architects, the Isidurus (from the current Miltos or Sokli) and Antius (from Trulles or the current Aidenle), were commissioned to rebuild the building. The work of 10,000 workers over five years and under the supervision of 100 professors was completed and opened on the date of the 27 Aralik 537. This church was first named the Great Church. After the conquest of Istanbul, Mohammad II ordered the Ayiafyya Church to be converted into a mosque. Solomon I ordered paintings and paintings inside Ayasofia to be read to be prayer Friday. Salim II ordered the architect Sinan to repair Aesothyah. During the third time, the minaret, altar and altar were added to the building of Ayasofia. At the time of the fourth, verses of the Qur'an were written in the line of Mostafa Chalabi in the walls and ceilings of Ayasofia; besides, plaques were placed around the roof of Ayasofia, where the names of Allah, Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman, Ali, Hassan and Hussein It was written. These plates were replaced during the reign of Abdul Majid with circular plates written on the line of Abraham Afandi. After the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in Turkey and the Atatürk's arrival, Ayasofia became the museum and remains the same to this day.

The height of the dome is 55 m above the dome and 31 m in diameter, which is mounted on 40 main shades and on four main pillars.

Sophia is one of the most striking and most beautiful examples of Byzantine architecture. One of the most valuable arts in this building is the interior decoration with mosaics and marble columns. The temple was decorated with such splendor and beauty that the Justinian proclaimed: "Solomon, we made it to you by building this building." Justinian himself pursued and closely monitored the construction of this cathedral. It was the largest church in its time, and this was true for 1000 years, until the cathedral was built in Seville, Spain.

The Justinian Church at one time was an unprecedented achievement of ancient architecture and a masterpiece of the archetypal architecture of the Byzantine Empire. The effects of making such a magnificent building, both from the architectural point of view and also on allegory in all cultures, including Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics, and ultimately the Islamic world, are undeniable. The tallest columns are between 19 to 20 meters high and at least 1.5 meters in diameter, made of granite and the largest of which weigh about 70 tons. Justinan ordered eight columns built in Cornit, located in Baalbek, Lebanon, and moved to the construction site for use in Ayia Sofia.

The vast interior space has very sophisticated instruments. The main hall of the church is covered with a central dome with a radius of 24/31 meters and a height of 6/55 meters. This dome appears to be in space with a series of successive ceilings containing 40 window arches below it. The presence of these windows causes the light silk from all sides to enter the interior. Considering the numerous repairs of the dome over the centuries, it seems that the dome lost its full circular shape and remained largely an oval with a radius ranging from 30.86 to 31.23 m.

The dome is located on the stool to four rectangular concave sections that solve the problem of the position of the circular dome on a rectangular base. The massive weight of the dome, or Sophia, passes through niches and is transmitted to four breakers to the columns in the corners of the hall. Between these 4 columns, the dome seems to be floating on 4 huge arches. During the Ottoman times, these arches were strengthened by the use of a number of armatures under the supervision of the architect Sinan. At the end of the western (inlet) and east (worship place), the spaces in the arches have half domes, which themselves are on structures similar to other domes. All of these domes and doubles of domes, in the order in which they are put together, give rise to a rectangular and long interior space in which the main dome includes a crown on all of them.

All interior surfaces of the building are covered with multi-colored marble, green and white or igneous purple stone and golden mosaics. The large pillars have the same type of veneer, and they look like glossy.


Turkey - Istanbul - Sultan Ahmad square

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