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Soltanieh dome

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Description

What was the reason for Soltanieh Dome?

Soltanieh Dome was founded on the orders of Oliyatou known as Sultan Muhammad Khodabandeh, one of the Mongol kings, under the supervision of Khaje Rashid al-Din Fazlullah Hamedani, around the years 704 to 712 AH. This is the magnitude of Soltanieh's dome that attracts tourists.

The complex of buildings known as Abuab al-Babar was designed and built at the time of the Mongol Ilkhanis, one of which is Soltaniyeh's dome. Soltanieh dome, which is the tomb of Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh, is located in Soltanieh, once the capital of the kings of Iran, and a large Soltanieh dome is seen from the distance in a magnificent color which lies in the vast plain of Soltanieh on the Tehran-Zanjan route.

At the site of the dome is the tomb of Mollazn Kashefi, Mola Hasan b. Mahmud Kashani Amoli, known as Hassan Taki, was the poet of the court of Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh. There are disagreements about the time when this building was built, some of the historians of the time of its construction were related to the time of the first time (The Mughal king) of the seventh century and some others attributed it to the era of the Shah Tahmasb Safavid, about the tenth century.

After the pilgrimage of Hassrat Ali (as) and Imam Hussein (a) Shiite, he decided to transfer his grave to Soltanieh and transfer the dome of Soltanieh to his tomb, whose purpose was to construct the Soltanieh dome, but with the disagreement of the Ulema Shiism did not do this and was buried in this building after his death. The dome was dated December 15, 1310 with the number 166 listed in the national works of Iran, and the name of this dome was registered as the seventh Iranian permanent record on July 24, 2005 in the UNESCO World list.

Soltanieh Dome of Zanjan

 

Soltanieh dome plan

Soltanieh's dome plan follows Islamic principles, which has 110 stories in alphabetical order, named Ali (as). Golbat Soltanieh is an octagon, inspired by the eight in heaven, built with brick and has The inner diameter is 25 meters, where two sides are interconnected, two large and high columns are designed and built.

Each column is connected by a curved arch to the column at the bottom of the same side, resulting in eight sides of the building, eight raised arches. The arc between the arches is covered with bricks in the adjacent arch, in the upper part of the arches, a lower dome of the dome is constructed, and on that the leg is made of a dome in the form of a circle.

In this section, they are circular in octagonal shape, and on the legs of the dome, they have built a huge dome and Rafi, the distance from the tip of the dome to the bottom of the building is 52 meters. Golband Soltanieh with a height of 50/48 meters and a diameter The crater is 40.24 meters, the largest historical dome in Iran and the largest brick dome in the world.

It has three dome spaces, a tombstone and a crypt. For further strengthening of the Soltanieh dome, during the years 1353 and 1354, they were injected into columns and vaults and concrete dome walls.

 

 

The interior view of the dome

1-dome

The dome is about 50 meters high and 25.5 meters in diameter of the central opening. This dome is the first double-faced dome in the world, the older sample of which has not been found so far, the thickness of the ink is about 160 cm, and an empty space There are 60 cm between the two shells. The two-sidedness of the dome in relation to static issues is debatable.

The hollow space of the building is invulnerable against the earthquake and its resistance to bending and tensile anchorages. There are 8 heavy graves in the space of the dome with a width of 6.78 m and a weight of 1600 tones of the dome to the basements. . The cross section of each of the girzos is at least 50 square meters and the load on it is estimated to be 200 tons.

Some consider this species like the Santa Cruz de la Frontera church, while this beautiful brick building with its dome never has the slightest similarity with the brass domes of the world, and the Soltanieh dome has its own unique feature, and there is no similarity to the dome of the Church of Santaamaria Delphiore No Florence

2- Torbat House

On the southern side, the dome is a part called the Torbaneh which is about 17 meters long, its width is about 8 meters and 16 meters high.

When the body of Imam Ali (PBUH) and his eldest son were disappointed, he commanded until From Najaf and Karbala to Soltaniyeh and they used to make part of the building. On the altar walls opposite the door, using the Torbat Imam Hussein (AS), Surah al-Mulk has been written with two sides of the third and Kofi, and this is why it is famous for Torbat House.

In the room of the Torbat House, goldsmith, gold coin and eight octave tiles tells the exceptionally privileged and unusual Iranian art of the time. The interior of this dome is designed with gypsum, mogharnas, workings, decorative lines and beautiful brick decoration. On the walls of the building, designs are made into a blue bricked brick building, the words of Allah, Muhammad Ali and the combination of Mohammad Ali's words and complex geometric combinations of the word Ali.

3. Crypt

The crypt is one of the lateral spaces of the dome, built on the southern side under the Torbat House, and some believe that there was a dome before the building.

The Ilkhanites had a long tradition of observing their beliefs and beliefs about their ancestors, bringing their dead and artifacts, in accordance with the individual's social status, buried in the cemetery graves beneath the earth.

Some believe The crypt was the place where the kings and princes were buried at that time. The entry of this part is low due to the fact that he has to bend down when arriving due to respect for the dead. The crypt through the south porch to the house of Torbat. In the middle of the crypt, there is a grave where there are two small spaces on both sides.

Many excavations were carried out and did not find any cemetery in the cellar, but historians and some scholars still believe that Sultan Muhammad Khodabandeh was buried in this cellar.

 

Sun clock

Detection of time is especially important for people, especially Muslims, because of the fundamental importance of religious rituals. For this reason, a sunny hour was designed and built to make the city's residents with the most accurate timing.

The working hours of this watch are as follows: if the light drops from the hole of the main dome, it indicates the time of the day's azan, and a light that draws from the big windows will do a great handwritten clock and light the small windows for about a minute.

And at night, the stars that were seen from these windows were a great help in identifying the time.

 

Soltaniyeh dome inscriptions

The inscriptions contained in this dome include the inscriptions of the Qur'anic verses in place and all its walls, the Fatah Surah round the ground floor, the Ayatolkashi verses above the main entrance to the tomb in the eastern part of the building, Surah al-Akhlās (Tawhid) inside the floor of the Avon, the verses of Al-Anbia Surahs, Al-Momenoun and Al-Molk on the bodies and all the first and second floor walls, with inscriptions called Mohammad Ali and a logos called the Union.

There are other inscriptions on which they are six times, five times called Mohammad (PBUH), five times the name of Ali (as), Muhammad the Prophet (s), the Prophet sultan, and the designer.

 

Inside Soltanieh's Dome

The horizontal movement in this building is in four levels connected by the minarets. These 4 levels include:
1 - In the ground floor, the place for the burial of the Shiite Imams has a very large space, which is likely to be designed and executed for Tawaf and religious ceremonies.
2nd level (first floor), which is 9.40 meters high from the floor of the building. In this section, on each of the 8 sides, there is an ivory structure that is built inward and lined with a covered corridor. They are likely to see religious ceremonies for the woman to be found there.
3. The third (second floor) level is 27.80 meters above the floor and has porches similar to the first floor, except that it is constructed on the external facade and its outlook is facing the plain. Tile, Mogharnas, Tissue, Gypsum and combinations of bricks and tiles, along with numerous inscriptions, give a special effect to the verandahs, and the space of 8 verandas provides the opportunity to watch the outside of the building.

The porch is the venue for the gathering of religious scholars and scholars During the Safavid period, it was converted into a room and used for the residence of the students, and the walls of these rooms were damaged in the overhauls of the Soltanyan dome to prevent the construction of the skeleton from becoming heavy, and the dome was reconstructed in its original form.
4. The fourth level is located on the roof of the building, with its suitable space, allowing free movement around the dome and used to repair the dome or pour snow.

 

Restoration of the building

This valuable building was abandoned for about 25 years until it was restored in 1348 by an Italian group and continued until 1979. Experts refer to the reconstruction of this building as one of the most delicate and complex works of its kind, which continues to this day.

Gonbad Soltanieh has been rebuilt in nine periods since 1348, and after 30 years of reconstruction The dome has been completed, but until recently there are still metal scaffolding around the building. Despite being the world's largest brick building, less attention has been paid.

Some Soltaniyeh domes are dying due to their lack of attention and attention and have been dyed in many parts. Although Soltanieh's dome has been recorded as a historical heritage on the World Heritage site, more effort should be made to preserve this valuable historical work in Iran.

 

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Location


Zanjan Province, Soltanieh City, Allameh Helli Square, Allameh Helli Blvd, Eridabad Street

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